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Archive for Coffee & Tea

TIP OF THE DAY: Cold-Brew Coffee

If you’ve been anywhere near an upscale coffee shop lately—Caribou, Peet’s, Starbucks and many others, you know that the latest trend is cold-brew coffee.

Rather than brewing ground coffee the traditional way, cold-brew creates a coffee concentrate by steeping the coffee grounds in cold or room temperature water, for 12 hours and up to twice that if you like strong coffee. Starbucks steeps their cold-brew for 20 hours.

For this reason, cold-brew is pricier than a regular brew. But it’s easy to steep at home. The benefits:

  • You enjoy a smoother cup of coffee. Because the water is never heated so it doesn’t precipitate as much acid or bitterness. The Toddy Cold Brew System produces coffee with 67% less acid than hot brew methods.
  • Make a cup of iced or hot coffee simply by mixing some of the concentrate with cold or hot water.
  • Like caffeine? Cold-brew has more of it.
  •  
    But cold-brew isn’t a new invention. We’ve been making it for 20 years with a Coffee Toddy. We keep the concentrate in the fridge, ready to create iced coffee with water and ice cubes. Producing hot coffee is just as delicious, and an easy way to prepare coffee for a group.

    For those who prefer convenience, bottles of cold-brew coffee concentrate ready to turn into hot or iced coffee, as well as individual ready-to-drink bottles of cold-brew, are sold at better stores from coast to coast.
     
    THE HISTORY OF COLD BREW COFFEE

    In the late 1960s, a garden nursery owner and chemist named Todd Simpson was on a plant-gathering trip to Guatemala, when he was served a delicious cup of coffee made from concentrate. Impressed, he developed the Toddy cold-brew coffee maker in his garage (source).
     
    Kyoto-Style Japanese Coffee

    But wait: While doing research, we discovered Kyoto-style Japanese coffee, a cold brew that originated in the 1600s. Thus, according to Daily Coffee News, cold brew coffee originated in Japan four centuries before Todd Simpson came across it in Guatemala.

    Coffee in Japan in the 1600s?

    It turns out that Dutch traders needed their coffee. Back in the 1600s, there was no electricity; coffee was brewed by dripping hot water through the grounds.

    Cold-dripped or hot-dripped coffee concentrate—“coffee essence”—would have been a means of transporting prepared coffee to be heated and consumed on-board. The traders brought the technique to Japan, where it became known as Dutch coffee.

    Japanese artisans created elegant, tall glass brewing towers that were popularized at shops in Kyoto, Japan, the earliest record of cold-brew coffee.

    Over the centuries, Kyoto-style brews have become highly artistic. Instead of submerging grounds for hours, the coffee is brewed drop by drop. A single bead of water is let down through the coffee grounds at a time, creating a process that takes just as much time as using a Toddy, and beautiful to watch.

    As the Japanese were cold-brewing tea at that time, the process was in place to cold-brew coffee (source).

    How extensively was the technique used beyond Japan? The record is not clear; but in days before electricity, when tending fires and boiling water was a lot of work, cold-brewing may have been a method used in coffee-drinking elsewhere.

       

    Takeya Cold Brew Coffee

    Takeya Cold Brew Coffee

    Toddy Cold Brew Coffee

    [1] Toddy, the original cold brew system (photo courtesy Toddy). [2, 3, 4] The Takeya Cold Brew Iced Coffee Maker is less expensive and smaller but produces less coffee concentrate (photos courtesy Takeya).

     

    Kyoto-Style Coffee Brewer

    The First Canned Coffee

    Cold Brew Concentrate

    [1] This three-tiered Kyoto-style cold-drip brewer is more than two feet tall (photo courtesy Yama Glass). There are versions that are even larger and more elaborate. [2] The first canned coffee with an English-language label (photo courtesy AsianFoodGrocer). [3] Straight from the supermarket: a bottle of cold brew concentrate (photo courtesy Seaworth Coffee).

     

     
    MORE COLD-BREW HISTORY

    According to an extensive article in The Guardian, there are indications that cold-brew coffee might have first been made in Peru, Guatemala or Java. But the documentation is sparse.

    Some of the earliest documented coffee concentrates originated as military rations.

    The Americans, the French and the Brits all simmered down a coffee concentrate for soldiers to reconstitute in the field.

  • The French provide the earliest example of a coffee concentrate served cold, along the lines of today’s iced coffee today. This was the original Mazagran, consumed by French Foreign Legion solders at the Mazagran fortress in Algiers: coffee concentrate sweetened and mixed with cold water. Versions spread internationally after the soldiers returned to France and introduced the concept to cafés (source “All About Coffee,” William H. Ukers, 1922).
  • The Americans: In the book “Civil War Recipes: Receipts from the Pages of Godey’s Lady’s Book,” which compiled recipes from the popular 19th-century women’s magazine, has a recipe for “coffee syrup,” a sugary concentrate with the consistency of treacle (golden syrup).
  • The Brits: In the mid-20th-century, British manufacturers successfully bottled a crossover version called Camp Coffee, advertising that “There’s no comparison for economy, flavor, and quickness.” It’s still available.
  •  
    Why did it take centuries for coffee concentrate to become widely popular, at coffee shops and the shelf-stable, ready-to-drink brewed coffee and concentrates in stores?

    The breakthrough, according to The Guardian, happened in Japan in the late 1960s.

    At that time, canned flavored milk, including coffee-flavored milk, was popular in Japan at that time. Businessman Ueshima Tadao thought to flip the ingredient ratio into a can of coffee with just a small amount of milk and sugar. He subsequently created a black coffee version.

    Thus, the final chapter of cold-coffee history was made by Ueshima Coffee Co., Ltd.; although it took a decade for UCC Coffee With Milk to really catch on.

    Shortly thereafter, in the 1970s, Italian coffee giant Illy introduced ready-to-drink black coffee in a can. The concept continued to expand until…well…check out the bottled coffees and concentrates on the shelves of the nearest market.
     
     
    MORE ABOUT COFFEE

  • Coffee terms and the different types of coffee.
  • The history of coffee.
  • Espresso and the different types of espresso drinks.
  • The history of espresso.
  • The Toddy Cold Brew System.
  •  

      

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    TIP OF THE DAY: Caramel Macchiato At Home

    One of our team makes two runs a day for a Caramel Macchiato at the corner Starbucks. This one’s for you, Christina.

    There are numerous types of espresso drinks, from Affogato (espresso served over ice cream) to Vanilla Latte (3:1 steamed milk and espresso with vanilla-flavored syrup).

    “Macchiato” means marked or stained in Italian (in France, it’s called Cafe Noisette). In Italy, Caffe Macchiato is made in an espresso cup, from steamed milk which is “marked” by the addition of espresso. The espresso, poured into the center of the foam, sinks down and leaves a brown spot on top. In Italy, it’s a mid-morning drink’ many Italians add a bit of sugar.

    The chief difference between a Macchiato and a Latte is that the Macchiato has aesthetically pleasing layers of color. With a Latte, the espresso and milk are completely integrated (see photos at right).

    As adapted to American tastes, the Macchiato became a larger drink. A Caramel Macchiato starts with steamed milk and vanilla syrup, adds the espresso, and tops the drink with a drizzle of caramel syrup. (Starbucks says that its 16 ounce size is 250 calories.)

     
    RECIPE #1: HOMEMADE CARAMEL MACCHIATO

    You can make your own at home in five minutes and double the recipe if you like. But try the single size first in case you want to adjust the proportions.

    You can buy the syrups or make your own (recipes below).

    Ingredients Per Drink

  • 1 tablespoon vanilla syrup
  • 2/3 cup milk
  • 1 shot espresso
  • Garnish: caramel sauce
  •  
    Preparation

    1. WARM an empty cup (we microwave it for 10 seconds) and add 1 tablespoon of vanilla syrup. Froth the milk and add it, along with the foam, to the cup.

    2. Pour in the espresso. Drizzle the caramel sauce to garnish, and serve.
     
    RECIPE #2: MAKE YOUR OWN VANILLA SYRUP

    Ingredients For 1-1/3 Cups

  • 1 cup water
  • 2/3 cup granulated sugar
  • 1/3 cup light brown sugar
  • Pinch of salt
  • 2 teaspoons vanilla extract
  •  

    Caramel Macchiato Recipe

    Caramel Macchiato

    Regular Latte

    Top: A homemade Caramel Macchiato (photo courtesy Tassimo). Center: A Caramel Macchiato from Starbucks. Bottom: A latte from Costa Coffee.

     
    Preparation

    1. COMBINE the water, sugars and salt in a heavy saucepan, add granulated sugar. Cook over medium-high heat until the sugar is completely dissolved, stirring slowly until the syrup reaches full a boil.

    2. REDUCE the syrup for 5 minutes over a simmer. Remove from the heat, let cool and stir in the vanilla extract.

    We store the syrup in a squeeze bottle in the fridge.
     
    RECIPE #3: MAKE YOUR OWN CARAMEL SYRUP

    Ingredients For 1-1/3 Cups

  • 1 cup granulated sugar
  • 3 tablespoons cold unsalted butter
  • ½ cup heavy cream, cold
  • ½ teaspoon pure vanilla extract
  • Pinch of salt
  •  
    Preparation

    1. ADD the sugar to a heavy saucepan and cook over medium-high heat. The sugar will liquefy; watch it closely because it burns easily. When the liquid starts to turn amber, remove the pan from the heat and immediately…

    2. WHISK in the butter and fully incorporate it into the sugar. Quickly whisk in the cream (bubbles and foam are natural).

    3. STIR in the vanilla and salt. Let cool and transfer to a squeeze bottle (or other container).

     
    CHECK OUT THE HISTORY & TYPES OF ESPRESSO IN OUR ESPRESSO GLOSSARY.

      

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    TIP OF THE DAY: Coffee Flavor Wheel

    Coffee Flavor Wheel

    /home/content/p3pnexwpnas01 data02/07/2891007/html/wp content/uploads/Flavor Wheel 2015 SCAA detail 230

    The new Coffee Flavor Wheel offers essential training on how to understand the flavors and aromas of coffee. Photos courtesy SCAA.org.

     

    One of the ways you get to be expert in a category—beer, chocolate, coffee, olive oil or wine, for example—is to learn to identify the flavor elements.

    We do this with a flavor wheel: a chart that identifies the different flavors and aromas of the particular food. Then, as we taste the food, we learn to identify its specific flavors and aromas by referencing the wheel.

    Take a look at THE NIBBLE’s Chocolate Flavor Chart and Olive Oil Flavor Chart, plus the seminal Wine Flavor Wheel developed at UC Davis, which not only identified all the flavors but grouped them for the first time.

    Twenty-one years ago, the Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA) created the Coffee Taster’s Flavor Wheel to help professionals identify the sensory attributes of any particular [brewed] coffee bean. It became one of the most valued resources in the industry.

    Earlier this year, the SCAA released an updated version, which is a valuable tool for any coffee lover who wants to better understand it. The Coffee Wheel is instrumental to understanding flavor attributes—what we call flavor notes.

    Using the World Coffee Research Sensory Lexicon as a foundation, dozens of industry professional—sensory experts, research scientists, coffee tasters, buyers and roasters—collaborated for more than three years to update the Lexicon and the Wheel.

    The SCAA notes that this is the largest and most collaborative piece of research on coffee flavor ever completed, and provides a new set of vocabulary for industry professionals.

    “This groundbreaking new tool will shift the way our industry thinks about and utilizes coffee flavor,” said the news release.

    Here are more details about the research and development that went into creating the wheel.

     

    GET YOUR OWN COFFEE WHEEL

    An 18″ x 25″ poster of the wheel is $20 at Store.SCAA.org.

    We have a much more simplistic list of coffee aromas and flavors on TheNibble.com.
     
    MORE ABOUT COFFEE

  • The History Of Coffee
  • How To Make A Good Cup Of Coffee
  • Illustrated Glossary Of Coffee Terms
  • Illustrated Glossary Of Espresso Terms
  •  
    Here’s a truly great product:

  • Coffee OFF Stain Remover
  •  

    Black Coffee

    Master the chart and you’ll become the coffee version of a wine expert: able to analyze any cup off coffee. Photo courtesy OgawaCoffeeUSA.

     

      

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    RECIPE: Peppermint Mocha Coffee

    peppermint-mocha-coffee-tylerscoffee-230r

    Peppermint Mocha Holiday Coffee. Photo courtesy Tylers Coffee.

     

    You could spend $5 at Starbucks for a Peppermint Latte, or make this over-the-top cup from Tylers Coffee, a Tucson-based specialist in USDA organic, acid-free coffee.

    It’s one of Tylers* most popular seasonal recipes.
     
    WHAT IS MOCHA?

    The culinary term mocha refers to a mixture of coffee and chocolate flavors. But the original mocha did not have have anything to do with chocolate.

    It was a term that referred to the fine coffee (what we now call arabica) that was traded in the once-vibrant port of Al Mokha on the Red Sea coast of Yemen.

    Al Mokha was the major marketplace for coffee from the 15th century until the early 18th century, selling beans that were grown in the central mountains of Yemen.

    By the early 19th century, Yemen been supplanted by Ethiopia as the principal trader of coffee. (The coffee plant originated in the highlands of Ethiopia.)

    THE PEPPERMINT MOCHA

    Ingredients Per Cup

  • 5 ounces espresso or French Roast coffee
  • 1 ounce chocolate shavings
  • 1 ounce candy cane powder (grind up candy canes or striped peppermints)*
  • Garnish: whipped cream
  • Optional garnishes: mini candy cane, chopped candy cane, holiday sprinkles
  •  
    *In terms of why Tyler leaves the apostrophe out of is name: You’ll have to ask them!

    Preparation

    1. POUR the coffee into an eight-ounce glass or mug. Add the chocolate shavings and stir until dissolved.

    2. STIR in the candy cane powder. Finish with whipped cream, a mini candy cane and/or chopped peppermints and holiday sprinkles.
     
    *If you don’t want to grind candy canes you can use a drop of peppermint oil.
     
    Here are recipes for other peppermint-mocha beverages.
     
      

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    TIP OF THE DAY: Make A Special Christmas Punch

    When we first received this recipe, we thought: Readers of The Nibble won’t want to buy or make the oleo saccharum. Holiday season is busy enough as it is.

    But we loved the recipe, and decided to make it for our own holiday celebration. We tasted the test batch and thought: We’ll be shortchanging our readers if we don’t share this.

    The recipe was created by Masahiro Urushido, an award-winning New York City bartender. He used Auchentoshan American Oak Single Malt Scotch, Rothman & Winter Orchard Apricot Liqueur and Lejay Creme de Cassis.

    This punch is inspired by traditional Scottish Christmas pudding, made with dried fruits such as raisins and apricots.

    Masa calls his recipe Pepperdier Christmas Punch, adapting the name of a friend. But since that can be confusing to the rest of us (we tried to research “Pepperdier” online), we’ll rename it slightly to Scotch Christmas Punch, acknowledging both the country of inspiration and the Scotch whisky in the recipe.

    RECIPE: SINGLE MALT CHRISTMAS PUNCH

    Ingredients For 8 To 10 Servings

  • 1/4 cup raisins or sultanas
  • 6 ounces Scotch Whisky
  • 8 ounces Scottish Breakfast Tea (it’s malty Assam tea, but you can substitute any classic black tea)
  • 6 ounces fresh lemon juice
  • 4 ounces Dubonnet Rouge (substitute sweet vermouth)
  • 2 ounces apricot liqueur
  • 1 ounce creme de cassis
  • 3 tablespoons oleo saccharum syrup (citrus sugar syrup—see below)
  • Sparkling wine*
  • Garnishes: rosemary sprigs, whole cranberries, orange slices and bay leaves
  •    

    Christmas Punch

    Oleo Saccharum Syrup

    TOP PHOTO: Christmas punch. Photo by Gabi Porter. BOTTOM PHOTO: Oleo saccharum, a big-sounding name for citrus sugar syrup. Photo courtesy Cocktail & Sons.

     
    *We happened to have a good bottle of Lambrusco—a red sparkling wine—on hand and it went great with this recipe. Most people will use Cava, Prosecco or another sparkling white wine.
     
    Preparation

    1. SOAK the raisins in the Scotch for several hours or overnight.

    2. MAKE the oleo saccharum if you aren’t purchasing it (recipe).

    3. MIX all ingredients except the sparkling wine in a punch bowl. Garnish with rosemary, cranberries, orange slices and bay leaves. Top with sparkling wine and serve.
     
    No Punch Bowl?

    If you don’t have a punch bowl, mix all ingredients except the sparkling wine in a pitcher. To serve, pour the punch into individual glasses, top with sparkling wine and garnish with an orange slice.
     

     

    Harney Scottish Breakfast Tea

    /home/content/p3pnexwpnas01 data02/07/2891007/html/wp content/uploads/scottish breakfast tea blend jenierteas 230r

    Both of these are Scottish breakfast teas, yet
    look at the difference in the blends. The top
    photo is Scottish Morn from Harney & Sons.
    The bottom photo is Scottish Breakfast tea
    blend from Jenier Teas.

     

    WHAT IS OLEO SACCHARUM?

    Oleo saccharum is citrus oil blended with sugar. In Latin, oleo means oil and saccharum means sugar. It became prominent in the 19th-century as a way to provide a subtle citrus flavor and aroma to sweetened drinks, instead of plain sugar syrup (simple syrup).

    Oleo saccharum is made from orange and/or lemon peels (lime peels have too much bitterness) that are muddled (crushed) to release the oils. Sugar is added to the muddled peel and mixes with the citrus oil that emerges from the skins. The peel is strained out, leaving sugared citrus oil.

    You can use it to add an elegant citrus note to any cocktail that requires sugar/simple syrup, and can blend it with club soda for a refreshing non-alcoholic drink.

    The bottled oleo saccharum from Cocktail & Sons, featured in the photo above, is a citrus syrup enriched with fresh lemongrass, toasted green cardamom and ginger. You can buy it on Amazon.com.

    Or, it’s easy enough to make your own. Here’s a recipe.
     
    WHAT IS SCOTTISH BREAKFAST TEA?

    Here’s something that few people outside the tea industry realize: Breakfast teas, notably English Breakfast, Irish Breakfast and Scottish Breakfast, are simply strong black tea blends.

    The blends have more flavor to stand up to milk or cream, complement British breakfast foods (eggs, porridge, ham, bacon, etc.) and provide heartiness (more body and caffeine) to energize the drinker in the morning. Afternoon tea blends tend to be lighter and smoother, to pair with sweets and tea sandwiches.

     

    The British first imported tea from China in the 17th century, to great public appreciation. Coffee was available at the time, but otherwise beer and stout were drunk by everyone, including children, because of contaminated water sources.

    The British became avid tea drinkers, and since the 18th century have been among the world’s greatest per capita tea consumers.

    In China tea is drunk plain, but in the 1720s, the British began to add sugar and milk or cream to create a more comforting beverage. Black tea came to exceed green tea in popularity, as it goes better with sugar and milk. (The same pattern occurred in the Thirteen Colonies.)
     
    The Different Types Of Breakfast Tea

    In order of robust flavor and body:

  • English Breakfast Tea is the mildest of the strong teas. It can be a blend of teas from Africa, India (Assam), Indonesia and Sri Lanka (Ceylon), with a base of Chinese congou tea. Originally, before tea cultivation expanded beyond China, it was unblended congou tea.
  • Irish Breakfast Tea has a good amount of Assam, giving it Assam’s malty flavor notes and reddish color. It often contain others black teas, including Darjeeling, to balance the intense flavors of Assam.
  • Scottish Breakfast Tea is the strongest of the three, with a base of Assam plus the smoother Keemun tea from China, among other teas in the blend.
  •  
    It’s important to note that there is no standard formula for any of these blends and no governing body specifying what each should contain. The blends evolved over time, likely as one vendor sought to copy a popular blend offered by another vendor.

    Thus, teas of the same name—English Breakfast, Earl Grey, Jasmine, etc.—can vary slightly in taste, aroma and appearance from vendor to vendor, and country to country. Names can also vary for the same type of blend. [Source]

    For example, fine tea vendor Harney & Sons calls its Scottish Breakfast Tea “Scottish Morn.” Describing the blend, which was made to the specifications of the American Scottish Foundation, Harney says:

    “A mixture of dark brown leaves, the smaller pieces of Assam and Ceylon and [the] CTC (cut, tear, curl) method make for a stronger tea. This is one of our darkest teas, brewing a very dark brown color. Many Scots would lighten it with milk. Aroma is not the point of this tea, so there are only hints of suggestions of malt. It is caffeinated [and] a very full bodied tea…perhaps the strongest tea we offer. Strong and simple, this tea is meant to be drunk with milk.”

    And now you know about Scottish Breakfast Tea and its kin, English Breakfast and Irish Breakfast. Enjoy the teas…and the punch!

      

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