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Archive for June 30, 2017

FOOD HOLIDAY: Mai Tai & Other Tiki Drinks

June 30th is National Mai Tai Day, a drink that is attributed by most experts to Victor J. Bergeron, a.k.a. Trader Vic (1902-1984).

Bergeron was the founder of the Trader Vic’s restaurant chain that was so popular in the 1950s and 1960s, which grew to some 30 Trader Vic restaurants worldwide, plus a wholesale food products business.

Trader Vic and his “amicable rival,” Don The Beachcomber, introduced mainland America to “tiki” drinks: plenty of rum and sweet mixers, garnished with baby orchids and perhaps a mini Japanese paper umbrella.

Bergeron, son of a San Francisco grocer, entered the restaurant business at age 32 in 1934—the year following the end of Prohibition. He used $300 of his own money and $800 borrowed from an aunt to open Hinky Dink’s, a hole-in-the-wall restaurant and beer joint in Oakland.

He began inventing and improving his vision of South Seas food—largely, the Cantonese cooking he had come across there.

To go with the food, he invented the exotic, rum-based drinks with catchy names, such as Doctor Funk of Tahiti, Mai Tai, Missionary’s Revenge, Queen’s Park Swizzle, Scorpion and Sufferin’ Bastard, among others.

Trader Vic’s Is Born

In 1937, Hinky Dink’s morphed into an upscale South Pacific theme restaurant with menu and Polynesian decor, intended to provide “complete escape and relaxation.” [source]

Theme-oriented restaurants had been established a few years before then (the history of theme restaurants), based on concepts from hot rods to fishing villages. Don The Beachcomber, and then Vic Bergeron, pioneered the Polynesian theme restaurant.
 
THE ORIGIN OF TIKI DRINKS

Polynesian restaurants were known for their “tiki drinks,” so-called because the restaurants decorated with tiki statues, along with other theme items such as South Seas-style wood surfboards, fake palm trees and fish-shaped lights floating above, “trapped” in fishing nets.

The exotic drinks added excitement to the overall category of rum drinks, which was focused on the Daiquiri, Dark and Stormy, Mojito, and Rum and Coke/Cuba Libre (the Hurricane, Piña Colada and others had not yet seen the light of day).

Others included Navy Grog, invented by Don the Beachcomber in Hollywood in 1944; Planter’s Punch, invented in Jamaica by 1878); Rum Runner, created in the 1950s at the Holiday Isle Tiki Bar in Islamorada, Florida; Tahitian Rum Punch, invented by Don The Beachcomber; and the Zombie, invented by Don the Beachcomber and popularized at the 1939 New York World’s Fair.

Tiki-inspired ceramic glasses, mugs and drink bowls were designed to fan the flames, as it were. Some bowls even had a center well into which Sterno could be poured for flaming drinks. Other drinks were flamed with a tablespoon of high proof rum, added to the surface.
 
 
THE INVENTION OF THE MAI TAI

The Mai Tai (pronounced my tie), was created in 1944 by Trader Vic. He tested the recipe on two friends from Tahiti, one of whom exclaimed “Maita’i roa a’e”, or “out of this world—the best” in Tahitian. Bergeron shortened that to Mai Tai—“the best.”

Trader Vic’s recipe is the one that endured, combining dark and light rums, lime juice, orange curaçao, orgeat syrup (almond-flavored simple syrup) and regular simple syrup. The original had a simple garnish (a mint spring) or none at all.

There is another drink called Mai Tai Swizzle, from Don the Beachcomber. It was invented in 1933, but it seems to have disappeared from his menu sometime before 1937 [source]. But the recipe was quite different, augmenting the rum with grapefruit juice, lime juice, Pernod and bitters (here’s the recipe).

   

Mai Tai Cocktail
[1] A Mai Tai based on the original recipe—except for the orchid, a later addition (photo courtesy The Mercury | Atlanta; here’s the recipe).

Mai Tai With Flowers
[2] A Mai Tai based on the original recipe—except for the flowers (photo courtesy Turntable Kitchen).

Mai Tai Cocktail

[3] A modern Mai Tai, looking like a Tequila Sunset—not what Trader Vic created (photo courtesy Real Restaurant Recipes).

 

Over the years, Trader Vic’s Mai Tai has been further “developed” by bartenders, into a fruitier and more colorful drink.

As with every drink called Margarita or Martini—when in fact the ingredients stray far from those recipes—these recipes “borrow” the Mai Tai name but give you a very different rum drink, with pineapple juice, orange juice and grenadine.

Why? Because fruity drinks are downed more quickly, leading to another and another (i.e., more drinks sold). To add to the colorful drink, a baby orchid and/or miniature Japanese umbrella appeared as garnish; or at least, a pineapple slice, orange slice and/or maraschino cherry.

As one article noted, “The flavor is often dominated by fruit and that helps hide the heavy taste of alcohol. This is perfect for drinkers who prefer less alcohol flavor….They end up tasting so good that a person can almost forget how potent they really are.” [source]
 
 
The Original Mai Tai Recipe

Bergeron invented the Mai Tai to showcase a favorite aged rum—the 17-year-old J. Wray and Nephew Ltd. Jamaican rum, golden and medium-bodied (the brand is now owned by Campari America).

He also used rock candy syrup, which is sweeter and thicker than regular simple syrup: a 2 parts sugar and 1 part water instead of a 1:1 ratio (recipe).

However, the Mai Tai was such a smash hit that “A couple of years after the cocktail’s invention, the world ran out of the 17-year-old rum…so [Bergeron substituted] a 15-year-old J. Wray and Nephew.” [source]

But once that, too, dwindled in supply, Bergeron created a blend of Jamaican rum and aged molasses-based Martinique rum to emulate the Wray and Nephew rum.

 

Mai Tai With Umbrella
[4] Not an authentic Mai Tai: The original had no orange juice, no umbrella (photo courtesy FlickRiver.com).

Blue Hawaii Cocktail
[5] If it uses blue curaçao, it’s not an authentic Mai Tai. A Mai Tai uses orange curaçao, not blue curaçao, and no pineapple or cherry (but here’s the recipe for this “Blue Hawaii” from Culinary Creative).

Flaming Tiki Drink

[6] As tiki culture evolved, so did the drinks—into flaming bowls equivalent to six or more drinks, served with jumbo straws (here’s the recipe for this Volcano Bowl from Kitchen Riffs).

 

Thus, here’s a current approximation of Bergeron’s revised Mai Tai:

Ingredients Per Drink

  • 3/4 ounce gold rum*
  • 3/4 ounce dark rum*
  • 1-1/2 teaspoons orange curaçao**
  • 1-1/2 teaspoons orgeat syrup†
  • 1-1/2 (1/2 ounce)teaspoons simple syrup‡
  • Juice of one fresh lime (1-1/4 ounces)
  • 1/2 ounce overproof rum
  • Optional garnish: mint sprig (later, lime wheel and sugar cane stick became options)
  • Shaved ice
  • ________________

    *Original recipe: 2 ounces 17-year old J. Wray & Nephew Rum.

    **Original brand: Holland DeKuyper Orange Curaçao.

    †Original recipe: 1/4 ounce Trader Vic’s Rock Candy Syrup (sweeter than orgeat, which is almond-flavored simple syrup).

    ‡Original brand: Garnier Orgeat (orgeat is the preferred simple syrup in France. This brand no longer exists.)
    ________________
     
    Preparation

    SHAKE the ingredients vigorously with the ice. Strain into an ice-filled double-old fashioned glass. Add a sprig of fresh mint

    Regarding the subsequent fruity, colorful modifications to his drink, Bergeron said:

    “The flavor of this great rum wasn’t meant to be overpowered with heavy additions of fruit juices and flavorings.” Alas, bar owners and bar tenders could care less [source].

    THE HISTORY OF THE TIKI BAR

    Ernest Raymond Beaumont Grant (1907-1989) a Texas native, began to travel the world—including the islands of the Caribbean and the South Pacific—in 1926. A bootlegger during Prohibition, he moved to Hollywood and when Prohibition in 1933, opened a bar called Don’s Beachcomber, the first tiki bar.

    Grant changed his name to Donn Beach, and in 1937 changed the name of the establishment to Don the Beachcomber.

    He then opened what became a very popular bar on Hollywood Boulevard in Los Angeles. It was decorated with items from the South Pacific, and Beach developed a cocktail menu that developed “secret recipes” inspired by the many types of rum drinks he had experienced during his years of island travel.

    In 1934, Victor Bergeron, who had also toured the South Seas, transformed his Oakland, California saloon Hinky Dinks into Trader Vic’s upscale Polynesian bar and restaurant. He created a his own menu of rum drinks.

    Located some 380 miles apart, the two pioneers of “tiki culture” became amicable rivals.

    Following World War II, the interest in South Pacific culture blossomed and the tiki boom took off. Tiki bars popped up all over the country, each attempting to outshine one another with lavish decor and rum cocktails served in mammoth bowls with floating orchids and tiny paper umbrellas [source].

    Both of the original bars expanded into restaurant chains. Don The Beachcomber had 25 locations, the last of which closed in the 1980s (two short-lived locations opened in 2001 and 2004, and a restaurant in Huntington Beach licensed the name in 2009 [source].

     
    Tiki culture peaked in the 1970s, and if you were of drinking age at the time, you may be missing those delightful drinks.

    So throw together a Mai Tai, and celebrate National Mai Tai Day.

      

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    TIP OF THE DAY: Lady Liberty Lemonade, Sangria Or Cocktail

    Here’s a very quick, yet very high-impact, trio of drinks for July 4th weekend. One has no alcohol, one is lightly alcoholic and one is full-cocktail.

    Call them Lady Liberty Lemonade or Lady Liberty Sangria; or add gin, tequila or vodka for a Lady Liberty Cocktail.

    Even if you have time for nothing else, you can make this!

    The amounts needed will vary depending on the size of your pitcher.

     
    RECIPE #1: LADY LIBERTY LEMONADE

    Ingredients

  • 1-2 cans frozen lemonade concentrate
  • 1 pint strawberries
  • 1 pint blueberries
  • 2 large apples
  • Star cookie cutter
  •  
    Preparation

    To serve with ice cubes, prepare a can of lemonade and freeze it in ice cube trays, five hours in advance or overnight. This keeps the drink ice-cold without diluting it.

    1. PREPARE the lemonade according to package instructions.

    2. WASH the fruit. Slice the apples, cut the slices into stars, and add all the fruit to the pitcher of lemonade. Chill in the fridge until ready to use.

    RECIPE #2: LADY LIBERTY SANGRIA

    Club soda added to this recipe serves two purposes: to add fizz to a still wine sangria, or to dilute the drink to a lower-alcohol, lower-calorie spritzer.

    Ingredients

  • 1-2 bottles of Prosecco or still, light white wine (see list below)
  • 1 cup white cranberry juice (plus extra if desired for ice cubes)
  • 1/2 to 1 cup triple sec (clear orange liqueur)
  • 1 pint strawberries, washed and halved
  • 1 pint blueberries, washed
  • 2 large apples, washed
  • Star cookie cutter
  • Optional: club soda
  •  
    Preparation

     

    Lady Liberty Lemonade
    [1] The addition of red, white and blue fruits makes this drink a celebration.

    Mionetto Prosecco

    [2] For sparkling sangria, use Prosecco, an Italian bubbly.

     
    To serve with ice cubes, freeze white cranberry juice in ice cube trays in advance.

    1. SLICE the apples, cut the slices into stars, and add all the fruit to a pitcher. Top with the wine, liqueur and juice, and stir gently to combine. Refrigerate until ready to use.

    2. FILL glasses and top off with club soda.
     
    RECIPE 3: LADY LIBERTY COCKTAIL

    Substitute gin, tequila or vodka for the wine in recipe #2.
     
     
    LIGHT WHITE WINES

    These wines are light enough for the hottest days of summer. Consider picking up varieties that you haven’t had before. Even if they won’t unseat your current favorite to drink as is, they will blend beautifully into the sangria.

  • Albariño
  • Aligote
  • Assyrtiko
  • Chablis
  • Chenin Blanc
  • Cortese/Gavi
  • Gargenega
  • Grenache Blanc
  • Muscadet
  • Picpoul de Pinet
  • Pinot Blanc
  • Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris
  • Sauvignon Blanc
  • Soave
  • Verdejo
  • Verdicchio
  •   

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